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會影響通訊信號?日本發布爆發太陽耀斑的最壞災情預測

2022年04月27日16:31  來源:人民網-日本頻道
 

人民網東京4月27日電(吳穎)據《朝日新聞》報道,太陽表面發生爆炸形成的“太陽耀斑”現象可能會導致手機和防災無線設備約兩周無法順暢使用。26日,日本總務省首次公布了太陽耀斑現象所帶來的最壞災情設想,以此預測發生百年一遇的極端現象時造成的損失。以前,太陽耀斑爆發時曾引發巨大損失,因此日本政府已開始研究如何提高應對災害能力的對策。

報道稱,太陽耀斑爆發時,手機和防災無線電等設備大約有2周在白天斷斷續續地無法使用,而且由于衛星的測繪功能也會受到影響,因此定位信息的誤差將會達到數十米。甚至,變壓器的受損還有可能導致電力供應的中斷。

太陽耀斑(Solar flare)是太陽活動的重要表現,是太陽表面局部區域突然和大規模的能量釋放過程,引起局部區域瞬時加熱,向外發射各種電磁輻射,并伴隨粒子輻射突然增強,所輻射出的光的波長橫跨整個電磁波譜,將會強烈擾動地球磁層、電離層和高層大氣,引發地磁暴,導致宇宙空間發生巨大變動,通信和電網也會受到影響。2017年,法國民航客機的無線電曾中斷約90分鐘。

國際慣例將太陽耀斑分成了五級——A、B、C、M、X。C級以下的都是小耀斑,M級耀斑是中等耀斑,X級耀斑是大耀斑。在監測到的級別之后,人們還會根據耀斑X射線峰值流量在字母后面加一個數字,數字越大,意味著釋放的能量越高。

據《中國科學報》4月25日報道,4月20日爆發的X2.2級大耀斑持續17分鐘。X2.2級表示耀斑軟X射線峰值流量為2.2×10-4瓦/平方米,在1秒內能釋放出1025焦耳的巨大能量,本次耀斑爆發所釋放出的能量大約相當于幾十億顆巨型氫彈同時爆炸。

(責編:許文金、孫璐)
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